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Reference

Infographs, Maps and Statistics Collection
Dr. Michael Izady

All infographs, maps and their accompanying texts, statistics and data that are hosted by this Gulf/2000 web site are original, authored and produced by Dr. Michael Izady for the Atlas of the Islamic World and Vicinity (New York, Columbia University, Gulf 2000 Project: 2006-present).. He retains exclusive copyright to them all. They are frequently upgraded by him as well as the new ones being posted.

These works are NOT in public domain and are protected by the US and International Intellectual Property laws.They may not be used for reposting, reprinting or copying without a written permission of Dr. Izady, the author.

These infographs and maps may be used for personal use by noting the origin as Dr. Izady (as the author) and Gulf/2000 (as the host). For publication or any other public and commercial usage, please contact him to obtain the relevant and required licenses at IzadyM@Yahoo.com or Izady@RiskReductionStrategies.org.

Methodology: This Atlas collection is largely infographic not cartographic. An infograph is a unique and original production based on textual, statistical, and/or monographic raw data. To create it, the raw data is processed, altering them if need be based on other trustworthy information (personal or anthropological observations), before plotting the outcome into a graphic. Infographs are appended by one or more articles, explaining the methodology, the math and the process of decision making. New statistics and the resultant pie- and/or bar charts are also appended. The entire product is then completed by a list of bibliography of the consulted material for the creation of the given infograph.

Conversely, a cartograph/map is just a visual work, often borrowing or even copying piecemeal the works already in existence. If including anything new, a map does not explain the what or the how: in short, maps are often generic just visual entities.



Categories:

I.New Postings
II.Ethnographic and Cultural
III.Demography and Population Density
IV.Economy, Natural Resources and Environment
V.Historical
VI.Military and Strategic
VII.Administrative and Political
VIII.Geopolitics and Diplomacy


Category I. New Postings

  1. Islamic States circa AD 1450 (detailed) Small | Large
  2. Islamic States ca. AD 1700 (detailed) Small | Large
  3. Jerusalem Metropolitan Area: Ethno-Religious Composition, AD 2020 Small | Large
  4. Golan Heights and Vicinity: Ethnoreligious Composition in AD 2020 (detailed) Small | Large
  5. Cultural Legacies in Structural Arts and Materiale of Mid East and Vicinity Small | Large
  6. Iraq, Nineveh Plain and Vicinity, Ethno-Religious composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
  7. Upper Persian Gulf, Morphology and Environmental Complexity (detailed) Small | Large
  8. Iraq, Loyalty to State among Ethno-Cultural Groups, AD 2020 Small | Large

Category II. Ethnographic and Cultural

  • Section A, Ethnicity:

    1. Afghanistan, Ethnic Groups (detailed) Small | Large
    2. Afghanistan, Ethnic Groups (summary) Small | Large
    3. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in 1940 Small | Large
    4. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in 2003 Small | Large
    5. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in 2006 Small | Large
    6. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in early 2007 Small | Large
    7. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in late 2007 Small | Large
    8. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition by the end of 2009 Small | Large
    9. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in 2015 Small | Large
    10. Baghdad, Iraq, Ethnic composition in 2020 Small | Large
    11. Baghdad Ethnic Changes and Resource Comparison Small | Large
    12. Baluch Ethnic Distribution in Southwest Asia Small | Large
    13. Caucasus and Vicinity, Ethno-Linguistic Groups Small | Large
    14. Caucasus, Ethno-Linguistic Makeup (summary) Small | Large
    15. Caucasus, Ethno-Linguistic Makeup (detailed) Small | Large
    16. Central Asia and Vicinity, Ethnicity Small | Large
    17. Central Asia Ethnic composition of Core (summary) Small | Large
    18. Central Asia Ethnic composition of Core (detailed) Small | Large
    19. Central Iraq, Ethnic Composition in 2003 (summary) Small | Large
    20. Central Iraq Ethnic Makeup in 2015 (summary) Small | Large
    21. Central Iraq Ethnic Makeup in 2020 (summary) Small | Large
    22. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Ethnic Composition and Group Divisions (detailed) Small | Large
    23. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Ethnic Composition and Group Divisions (summary) Small | Large
    24. Iran, Ethnic Composition (summary) Small | Large
    25. Iraq, Ethnic Groups, 2000 (summary) Small | Large
    26. Iraq, Ethnic Groups, 2015 (summary) Small | Large
    27. Iraq, Ethnic Groups, 2015 (detailed) Small | Large
    28. Iraq Ethnic Shift, 1947-2017 Small | Large
    29. Iraq Group Divisions, 2020 (summary) Small | Large
    30. Iraq Turkoman population (detailed) Small | Large
    31. Jordan, Ethnic Composition (summary) Small | Large
    32. Kirkuk Ethnic Makeup: City and Environs in 2014 Small | Large
    33. Kurds in the Middle East and Vicinity Small | Large
    34. Lebanon Ethnic Composition (detailed) Small | Large
    35. Lebanon Ethnic Composition (summary) Small | Large
    36. Levant (al-Shaam) - Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan Ethnic Composition in 2010 summary) Small | Large
    37. Levant (al-Shaam) - Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan Ethnic Composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
    38. Libya: Ethnic and Tribal Composition--Tripolitania Sector Small | Large
    39. Middle East, Ethnic Groups Small | Large
    40. Mosul, Ethnic makeup of the city and environ in 2010 Small | Large
    41. Mosul Metro Area and Environs: Ethnic Composition 2010 Small | Large
    42. Nagorno-Karabakh and Vicinity, Ethnic Composition in 1990 and 2020 Small | Large
    43. Nigeria, Ethnic composition (detailed) Small | Large
    44. Pakistan, Ethnic groups Small | Large
    45. Persian Gulf, Ethnic Groups Small | Large
    46. South Sudan, Ethnic Subdivisions Small | Large
    47. Southwest Arabia, The Yemen, Najran, Asir and Jazan: Ethno-Religious Makeup (detailed) Small | Large
    48. Sudan (north), Ethnic Subdivisions Small | Large
    49. Sudan (formerly united), Ethnic Subdivisions Small | Large
    50. Syria Ethnic Composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
    51. Syria Ethnic Composition in 2010 (summary) Small | Large
    52. Syria Ethnic Shift, 2010-2018 Small | Large
    53. Syria, Group Divisions Small | Large
    54. Greater Syria: Ethnic Composition in 1935 Small | Large
    55. Turkic Peoples of Middle East and Vicinity Small | Large
    56. Ukrainians and Russians in Caspian-Black Sea basin Small | Large
    57. Yemen, Ethnic and Religious Composition (detailed) Small | Large
    58. Yemen, Ethnic and Religious Composition (summary) Small | Large

  • Section B, Cultural and Historical Zones:

    1. Afghanistan Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large
    2. Arabia: Cultural-Historical Zones Small | Large
    3. Iran Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large
    4. Iraq Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large
    5. Kurdistan Cultural-Geographical Subdivision (summary) Small | Large
    6. Libya: Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large
    7. Middle East Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large
    8. Persian Gulf Cultural and Historical Domain Small | Large
    9. Syria Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large
    10. Yemen Cultural and Historical Zones Small | Large

  • Section C, Languages:

    1. Afghanistan, Languages (detailed) Small | Large
    2. Afghanistan, Languages (summary) Small | Large
    3. Caucasus and Vicinity, Ethno-Linguistic Groups Small | Large
    4. Caucasus, Ethno-Linguistic Makeup (summary) Small | Large
    5. Caucasus, Ethno-Linguistic Makeup (detailed) Small | Large
    6. Caucasus, Linguistic Grouping Small | Large
    7. Central Asia, Languages (summary) Small | Large
    8. Central Asia and Vicinity, Languages Small | Large
    9. Greater Middle East, Official State Languages Small | Large
    10. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Languages (detailed) Small | Large
    11. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Languages (summary) Small | Large
    12. Iran Languages (detailed) Small | Large
    13. Iran, Languages in 2000 Small | Large
    14. Iran, Languages in 2014 Small | Large
    15. Iranian/Iranic Family of Languages (Summary) Small | Large
    16. Iraq, Languages (summary) Small | Large
    17. Islamic World, Primary Languages Small | Large
    18. Jordan, Linguistic Subdivisions (summary) Small | Large
    19. Kurdish Language and its Dialects: Distribution Small | Large
    20. Levant (al-Shaam) - Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan Linguisitc Composition in 2010 summary) Small | Large
    21. Levant (al-Shaam) - Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan Linguisitc Composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
    22. Middle East, Languages Small | Large
    23. Middle East Language Families Small | Large
    24. North Africa, Languages Small | Large
    25. Pakistan, Languages Small | Large
    26. Persian Gulf, Languages Small | Large
    27. Persian Language Distribution (summary) Small | Large
    28. South Sudan, Languages Small | Large
    29. Sudan (North), Languages Small | Large
    30. Sudan (formerly united), Languages Small | Large
    31. Syria Linguistic Composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
    32. Syria Linguistic Composition in 2010 (summary) Small | Large
    33. Turkic Languages of Middle East and Vicinity Small | Large
    34. Yemen, Languages (detailed) Small | Large

  • Section D, Religion:

    1. Afghanistan Religions (detailed) Small | Large
    2. Afghanistan Religions (summary) Small | Large
    3. Caucasus Religious Composition Small | Large
    4. Caucasus and Vicinity: Religious Diversity Small | Large
    5. Central Asia Religious Composition Small | Large
    6. Central Asia and Vicinity Religious Composition Small | Large
    7. Central Iraq: Changes in Ethno-Religious Composition, 2017 Small | Large
    8. Christian Population of Middle East in 1914 Small | Large
    9. Christian Population of Middle East in 2014 Small | Large
    10. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Religions (detailed) Small | Large
    11. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Religions (summary) Small | Large
    12. Iran Religions (summary) Small | Large
    13. Iraq Religions in 2000 (summary) Small | Large
    14. Iraq Religions in 2015 (summary) Small | Large
    15. Islam Branches and Denominations Small | Large
    16. Islam's Branches and Denominations in the Middle East Small | Large
    17. Islam, Denominations, sects and divisions of Shiism Small | Large
    18. Islam, Sunni Denominations Small | Large
    19. Islamic World Branches and Primary Divisions Small | Large
    20. Islamic World Small | Large
    21. Jordan, Religious Composition (summary) Small | Large
    22. Kurdistan Religious Makeup Small | Large
    23. Lebanon, Ethno-Religious Composition in 1935 Small | Large
    24. Lebanon Religious Composition (detailed) Small | Large
    25. Lebanon Religious Composition (summary) Small | Large
    26. Levant (al-Shaam) - Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan Religious Composition in 2010 (summary) Small | Large
    27. Levant (al-Shaam) - Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan Religious Composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
    28. Libya Religion, Western Sector Small | Large
    29. Middle East Religions Small | Large
    30. Nigeria Religions (detailed) Small | Large
    31. Pakistan Religions Small | Large
    32. Persian Gulf Religions (summary) Small | Large
    33. Persian Gulf Religions (detailed) Small | Large
    34. Shias in the Core Areas of the Middle East Small | Large
    35. South Sudan Religions Small | Large
    36. Southwest Arabia, The Yemen, Najran, Asir and Jazan: Ethno-Religious Makeup (detailed) Small | Large
    37. Sudan (north) Religious Composition Small | Large
    38. Sudan (formerly united) Religious Composition Small | Large
    39. Syria Religious Composition in 2010 (detailed) Small | Large
    40. Syria Religious Composition in 2010 (summary) Small | Large
    41. West Africa Religious Composition Small | Large
    42. Yemen Ethnic and Religious Composition (detailed) Small | Large
    43. Yemen Ethnic and Religious Composition (summary) Small | Large

  • Section E, Tribes and Tribal Associations:

    1. Afghanistan Tribes Small | Large
    2. Iranian tribes and environmental provinces Small | Large
    3. Kurdish Tribal Confederacies and Family Clans Today Small | Large
    4. Kurdish Tribal Confederacies and Family Clans in 1835 Small | Large
    5. Libya: Ethnic and Tribal Composition--Tripolitania Sector Small | Large
    6. Libya Tribes and Clans Small | Large
    7. Pashtun Tribal Confederacies in Afghanistan and Pakistan Small | Large
    8. Saudi Arabia Tribes and Tribal Composition Small | Large
    9. Syria, Tribal Composition Small | Large
    10. Yemen Tribes and Clans Small | Large

Category III. Demography and Population Density

    1. Afghanistan, Demography and Population Density Small | Large
    2. Caucasus, Demography and Population Density Small | Large
    3. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Demography and Population Density (detailed) Small | Large
    4. Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Palestine), Demography and Population Density (summary) Small | Large
    5. Iran, Demography and Population Density Small | Large
    6. Iraq, Demography and Population Dynamics Small | Large
    7. Lebanon, Demography and Population Density Small | Large
    8. Nigeria, Demography and Population Density (detailed) Small | Large
    9. Syria, Demography and Population Density Small | Large
    10. Yemen, Demography and Population Density Small | Large

Category IV. Economy, Natural Resources and Environment

    1. Clarence Strait, Strait of Hormuz and Qeshm Island Ecosystem Small | Large
    2. Oil and Gas Resources and Facilities in Iraqi Kurdistan Small | Large
    3. Oil and Gas Deposits in the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea Basins in 2014 Small | Large
    4. Oil and Gas Deposits in the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea Basins in 2017 Small | Large
    5. Persian Gulf, Morphology and Bathymetry Small | Large
    6. Primary Oil and Gas Deposits in the Urals, Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf Basins Small | Large
    7. Upper Persian Gulf, Morphology and Environmental Complexity (summary) Small | Large

Category V. Historical

  • Section A, Arabia:

    1. Arabia: Political Divisions in AD 1900 Small | Large
    2. Saudi Arabia, Advent and Territorial Expansion: 1902-1934 Small | Large
    3. Saudi Arabia, Territorial Expansion and Boundary Issues: 1934-Present Small | Large

  • Section B, Iran:

    1. Iran, Qajar Dynasty Territorial Legacy Small | Large
    2. Iranian Takeover of Territories in the Persian Gulf Small | Large
    3. Iran Territorial Changes (summary) Small | Large
    4. Iran Territorial Changes since 1790s (detailed) Small | Large

  • Section C, Kurdistan:

    1. Kurdish kingdoms and principalities in 1835 Small | Large
    2. Kurdish states in 1835 (detailed) Small | Large

  • Section D, Middle East:

    1. Islam's Shia Centuries Small | Large
    2. Islamic States in AD 661 (detailed) Small | Large
    3. Islamic States in AD 750 (detailed) Small | Large
    4. Islamic States in AD 850 (detailed) Small | Large
    5. Islamic States in AD 985 (detailed) Small | Large
    6. Islamic States in AD 985 (summary) Small | Large
    7. Islamic States in AD 1030 (detailed) Small | Large
    8. Islamic States in AD 1100 (detailed) Small | Large
    9. Islamic States in AD 1190 (detailed) Small | Large
    10. Islamic States in AD 1190 (summary) Small | Large
    11. Islamic States ca. AD 1260 (detailed) Small | Large
    12. Islamic States ca. AD 1260 (summary) Small | Large
    13. Islamic States in AD 1300 (detailed) Small | Large
    14. Islamic States in AD 1350: The Period of Fragmentation (detailed) Small | Large
    15. Islamic States in AD 1405 (detailed) Small | Large
    16. Islamic States ca. AD 1405 summary) Small | Large
    17. Islamic States ca. AD 1450 summary) Small | Large
    18. Islamic States in AD 1510 (detailed) Small | Large
    19. Islamic States ca. AD 1510 summary) Small | Large
    20. Islamic States ca. AD 1550 (detailed) Small | Large
    21. Islamic States ca. AD 1550 (summary) Small | Large
    22. Islamic States ca. AD 1600 (summary) Small | Large
    23. Islamic States ca. AD 1600 (detailed) Small | Large
    24. Islamic States ca. AD 1625 (summary) Small | Large
    25. Islamic States ca. AD 1625 (detailed) Small | Large
    26. Islamic States ca. AD 1700 (summary) Small | Large
    27. Islamic States ca. AD 1735 (summary) Small | Large
    28. Islamic States ca. AD 1750 (summary) Small | Large
    29. Islamic States ca. AD 1800 (summary) Small | Large
    30. Islamic States ca. AD 1840 (summary) Small | Large
    31. Islamic States ca. AD 1850 (summary) Small | Large
    32. Islamic States ca. AD 1875 (summary) Small | Large
    33. Islamic States in AD 1880 (detailed) Small | Large
    34. Islamic States ca. AD 1900 (summary) Small | Large
    35. Islamic States in ca. AD 1900: The Colonial Apex (detailed) Small | Large
    36. Islamic States ca. AD 1925 (summary) Small | Large
    37. Islamic States ca. AD 1950 (summary) Small | Large
    38. Islamic States ca. AD 2000 (summary) Small | Large

Category VI. Military and Strategic

  1. Baghdad Security Walls, 2008 Small | Large
  2. Strife and Instability in Middle East, 2018 Small | Large
  3. US Military Bases and Facilities in the Middle East and Vicinity Small | Large

Category VII. Administrative and Political

  • Section A, Afghanistan:

    1. Provinces of Afghanistan, 1964 Small | Large
    2. Provinces of Afghanistan, 1967 Small | Large
    3. Provinces of Afghanistan, 2001 Small | Large
    4. Provinces of Afghanistan, 2006 Small | Large
    5. Provinces of Afghanistan, 2012 Small | Large

  • Section B, Caucasus:

    1. Caucasus, Comparative Area Small | Large
    2. Caucasus, Administrative Subdivisions Small | Large
    3. Soviet "Red" Kurdistan Autonomous District (Rayon) in the Caucasus
      Small | Large

  • Section C, Central Asia and the Urals:

    1. Central Asia and the Urals Small | Large
    2. The Republics in the Urals and Northern Caucasus Small | Large

  • Section D, Iran:

    1. Iran, Cardinal Geographical Subdivisions Small | Large
    2. Provinces of Iran, 1934 Small | Large
    3. Provinces of Iran, 1958 Small | Large
    4. Provinces of Iran, 1986 Small | Large
    5. Provinces of Iran, 2006 Small | Large
    6. Provinces of Iran, 2010 Small | Large
    7. Provinces of Iran, 2013 Small | Large
    8. Provinces of Iran, 2017 Small | Large

  • Section E, Iraq:

    1. Provinces of Iraq, 1953 Small | Large
    2. Provinces of Iraq, 1958 Small | Large
    3. Provinces of Iraq, 1970 Small | Large
    4. Provinces of Iraq, 1975 Small | Large
    5. Provinces of Iraq, 1990 Small | Large
    6. Provinces of Iraq, 2009 Small | Large
    7. Provinces of Iraq, 2015 Small | Large
    8. Iraqi Elections of 2005, Provincial Results Small | Large
    9. Iraqi Elections of 2010, Provincial Results Small | Large

  • Section F, Kurdistan:

    1. Kurdish native provinces and subdivisions Small | Large
    2. Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 1975 Small | Large
    3. Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 1995 Small | Large
    4. Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 2005 Small | Large
    5. Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 2010 Small | Large
    6. Kurdistan: State Administrative Units in 2015 Small | Large
    7. Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 2017 Small | Large
    8. Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status at the Start of 2020 Small | Large

  • Section G, Holy Land:

    1. Holy Land - Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Administrative Subdivisions Small | Large

  • Section H, Jordan:

    1. Jordan, Administrative Subdivisions Small | Large

  • Section I, Middle East:

    1. Greater Middle East, States and Territories Small | Large
    2. Greater Middle East, Geopolitical Subdivisions Small | Large
    3. Greater Middle East, Official State Languages Small | Large
    4. Greater Middle East, Primary Subdivisions Small | Large
    5. The Middle East (Small | Large)

  • Section J, Nigeria:

    1. Nigeria, Administrative Subdivisions (detailed) Small | Large

  • Section K, Persian Gulf:

    1. Persian Gulf Administrative Units Small | Large
    2. Persian Gulf Region, Political Small | Large
    3. Strait of Hormuz (detailed) (Small | Large)
    4. Strait of Hormuz (summary) (Small | Large)
    5. Gulf of Bahrain (detailed) (Small | Large)
    6. Gulf of Bahrain (summary) (Small | Large)
    7. Upper Persian Gulf, Political (detailed) Small | Large
    8. Upper Gulf (summary)

  • Section L, South Sudan:

    1. South Sudan Demography and Administrative Subdivisions Small | Large

  • Section M, Syria:

    1. Provinces and Counties of Syria, 2010 Small | Large

  • Section N, Yemen:

    1. Provinces of Yemen, 2010 Small | Large

Category VIII. Geopolitics and Diplomacy

  1. Afghanistan's Federal Option Small | Large
  2. Greater Middle East and Relationship with Israel, 2020 Small | Large
  3. Iraq's Federal Option Small | Large
  4. Middle East Energy Deposits in the Context of its Religious Makeup Small | Large
  5. Oil and Ethnicity in Eastern Saudi Arabia Small | Large
  6. Religion and Politics in the Persian Gulf, 2017 Small | Large
  7. Saudi Arabia's Federal Option Small | Large
  8. Shia Crescent of Power in the Core Areas of the Middle East in 2008 Small | Large
  9. Shia Crescent of Power in the Core Areas of the Middle East in 2015 Small | Large
  10. Shia Crescent of Power in the Core Areas of the Middle East, the future prospects Small | Large
  11. Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916 Small | Large
  12. Syria's Federal Option Small | Large
  13. Ukraine's Federal Option Small | Large
  14. Yemen's Federal Option Small | Large


Other helpful resources

  1. The ministries of Defense and Interior of the Republic of Austria have jointly published an Atlas of Syria and the Middle East & North Africa. On matters cultural, religious and linguistic, this Austrian work has greatly benefitted from the infographic and map collection here on Gulf2000, albeit, with less accuracy and detail.

  2. The ministries of Defense and Interior of the Republic of Austria have jointly published an Atlas of Syria.

  3. World Oil Chokepoints
    Maps and descriptive material/statistics concerning the flow of oil throughout the world, by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA)

  4. Irancarto: Maps and cartographic studies on Iran and the Iranian world
    A vast array of maps dealing with Iran; edited by Bernard Hourcade of Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris. Covers population, education, housing, economy, culture, gender, languages, politics, environment, urban studies. Sophisticated three language (French/English/Persian) searches can be conducted by subject, key-word, place name, period, scale, and author.

  5. UN Cartographic Section
    Over 100 maps, including 13 of the Middle East and 6 of Gulf states (PDF format)

  6. The Library of US Congress map collection is an extremely valuable site for the maps of early modern Middle East and the Gulf as well as the modern ones.

    The digital maps on this site are listed in alphabetical order. Use the "Next page" button at the bottom of each page to advance forward. Use "Previous page" button to return. Click on the "Zoom In" choice circles followed by a click on the map above it to get to the resolution that you need. For downloading, use the "Navigator View" box on the upper right hand side to choose the frame that you like to download. All users must credit the Library of Congress for these maps if included in their presentations.

  7. The Harvard Map Collection is the oldest map collection in America with ca. 400,000 maps, over 6,000 atlases, and several thousand reference books. Topographic maps, nautical charts and thematic maps provide an excellent research collection representing all chronological periods and notable map makers, many of them digitally available on their web site, including historical images and the Harvard Geospatial Library.


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